The key, Doughty says, is to deploy leaves that sport a thick layer of hairs, which reflect near-infrared wavelengths back out into space. Super-hairy strains of soya have already been bred, and these reflect 3 to 5 per cent more sunlight. Doughty calculates that this would be enough - if planted in huge amounts - to generate the cooling effect.
The finding, published Friday, sharply challenges standard medical practice in mental health clinics and nursing homes in the United States and around the world.
In recent years, many doctors have begun to use the so-called antipsychotic drugs, which were developed to treat schizophrenia, as all-purpose tranquilizers to settle threatening behavior - in children with attention-deficit problems, college students with depression, older people with Alzheimer's disease and intellectually handicapped people.
The new study tracked 86 adults with low IQs in community housing in England, Wales and Australia over more than a month of treatment. It found a 79 percent reduction in aggressive behavior among those taking placebo pills, compared with a reduction of 65 percent or less in those taking antipsychotic drugs.
The vaccine, currently in clinical trials, stimulates the immune system to attack the real thing when it's taken.
The immune system — unable to recognize cocaine and other drug molecules because they are so small — can't make antibodies to attack them.
To help the immune system distinguish the drug, Kosten attached inactivated cocaine to the outside of inactivated cholera proteins.
In response, the immune system not only makes antibodies to the combination, which is harmless, but also recognizes the potent naked drug when it's ingested. The antibodies bind to the cocaine and prevent it from reaching the brain, where it normally would generate the highs that are so addictive.
Leslie Jacobsen of Yale University School of Medicine and colleagues used diffusion tensor imaging, which measures how water diffuses through brain tissue, to study the brains of 33 teenagers whose mothers had smoked during pregnancy. Twenty-five of the teens were daily smokers. The team also studied 34 teens whose mothers had not smoked, of whom 14 were daily smokers.
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